Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a hole in the wall that separates the right and left ventricles of the heart. Ventricular septal defect is one of the most common congenital and occurs in nearly half of all children with congenital heart disease.
Most VSDs encountered in the adult population are small and require little more than observation. However, some experts believe that any patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) should be occluded to prevent endarteritis and to remove any excess flow from the pulmonary circuit, which could result in volume overload over time. PDAs can be ligated surgically or closed percutaneously, using device closure or coils, depending on size.
If the VSD is symptomatic and not responsive to medication, surgery to close it with a patch is needed. Some VSDs can be closed with a special device during a cardiac catheterization, which avoids the need for surgery. This is called transcatheter closure. However, only certain types of defects can successfully be treated this way.